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A shaft is a spinning machine component that transmits power from one part to another or from a machine that creates the power to a machine that absorbs power. Shafts are typically circular in cross-section.

Shafts are a crucial component of machinery. They support moving components like pulleys and gears and are supported by bearings anchored to the rigid machine casing.

It is important to keep in mind when choosing the shape of the stepped shaft that each cross-diameter section should allow each component that is put onto the shaft to easily access its seat.

The material used for the shafts

Mild steel is the material used to make standard shafts. Alloy steels like nickel, nickel-chromium, or chromium-vanadium steel are utilized when great strength is required. Shafts are typically hot rolled into shape, then cold drawn, turned, or ground to size.

The material used for the shafts must possess the following qualities: 

  • High strength, 
  • Good mechanization, 
  • Low notch sensitivity factor, 
  • Good heat treatment capabilities, 
  • High wear-resistant properties.

Regular shafts are made of carbon steel in grades 40 C8, 45 C8, 50 C4, and 50 C12.

Manufacturing of shafts

Spline shaft suppliers and other shaft suppliers or manufacturers use the steps of hot rolling, then cold drawing, turning, or ground to shape in order to manufacture it. Although they have higher residual stresses, cold-rolled shafts are more vital than hot-rolled shafts.

When something is automated, residual stress can lead to shaft deformation, particularly when slots or keys are cut. Larger diameter shafts are often forged and turned on a lathe.

Types of shaft

Shafts can be broadly divided into two types:

  • Transmission shafts are used to transfer power between the machine absorbing the power and the source—for instance, all factory shafts, line shafts, and countershafts.
  • Machine shafts are a crucial component of the actual machine. like the crankshaft
  • Vehicles utilize axle shafts.
  • A spindle shaft is a revolving shaft that has a fixture to hold a workpiece or a tool.

If these shafts are not available in the market so you also made it by 

The standard size of shafts are:

Transmission shafts typically range in size 

  • 25 mm to 60 mm with 5 mm steps.
  • 10 mm stages from 60 to 110 millimeters
  • With 15 mm increments from 110 to 140 mm 
  • 20 mm steps from 140 to 500 mm.
  • The shafts are typically 5 m, 6 m, and 7 m long.

The sizes of machine shafts that are considered standard are as follows:

  • Steps of 0.5 mm up to 25 mm

Pros & Cons of shaft

Pros of shafts:

  • The shaft system has a lower chance of jamming.
  • When a tube is connected to the drive shaft, it requires less maintenance than a chain system.
  • A hollow shaft weighs less than a solid haft for the same torque transmission.
  • In the hollow shaft, fewer materials are needed.
  • The shaft has a low failure probability and is sturdy.
  • Significant polar moment of inertia01
  • Strong torsional properties

Cons of shafts:

  • A loose connection is the cause of the power loss.
  • Shafts may shake while they are rotating.
  • Made a noise that was steady.
  • Mechanical problems led to a longer wait time.
  • A loss of velocity between shafts may result from the use of flexible couplings, such as a leaf spring coupling. It was challenging to change the speed.
  • Oil leaking from shafting above.


In any event, remember that a welle shaft or other becomes weaker when a keyway is added to it. Similar to this, a hollow shaft’s capability for torque decreases as the bore diameter increases. Only with strong engineering support should you think about changing a shaft. 

Even yet, keep in mind that the safety factor should be more forgiving the more serious the consequences of failure. Who would want to utilize an elevator that was not built with safety in mind? 

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